Uncial script: a text written completely in capital letters, without spaces (scripto continua), diacritics, or punctuation. Older than minuscules.
Minuscule: a text written in lowercase letters with a few words starting in capital letters. Several centuries after Christ.
Codex: a book (collection of pages that turn) made of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar and written by hand (manuscript) . It replaced the old scroll.
- Vaticanus (B) – c. 325–350
- Sinaiticus (a.k.a. Aleph, א) A – c. 330–360
- Alexandrinus (A) – c. 400–440
- Ephraemi (C) – c. 450
- Bezae (D) – c. 400
Scroll: a long sheet rolled so that one page (segment) is exposed at a time.
A way of grouping texts by region of origin and time.
- The Alexandrian text-type
- Also called the “Neutral Text” tradition; less frequently, the “Minority Text”
- From around Alexandria, Egypt and from the Alexandrian Church
- 2nd–4th centuries
- e.g. Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus
- Used mainly by translations after 1900
- Used for the NIV, NAB, NABRE, Douay, JB, TNIV, NASB, RSV, ESV, EBR, NWT, LB, ASV, NC, GNB
- The Western text-type
- Sometimes called the Caesarean text-type
- From North Africa to Italy and from Gaul to Syria
- 3rd–9th centuries
- Greek and Latin
- Used for the Vetus Latina
- The Byzantine text-type
- Also called Koinē text-type or “Majority Text” (because the Byzantines made more copies of these than of any others)
- 5th–16th centuries
- 95% of all the existing manuscripts
- Used by the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (starting on the 5th century)
- It contains the most harmonistic readings, paraphrasing and significant additions, most of which are believed to be secondary readings
- Used mainly by translations during the Reformation-era via the Texts Receptus (a.k.a Received Text or RT, 80% Byzantine text-type)
- Used for KJV, NKJV, Tyndale, Coverdale, Geneva, Bishops’ Bible, OSB
Novum Testamentum Graece
- Also called “Critical Text”
- Is a text compiled by a committee that examines a large number of manuscripts in order to determine which reading is most likely to be closest to the original.